PlumeStop® Liquid Activated Carbon™ is an innovative groundwater remediation technology designed to address the challenges of excessive time and end-point uncertainty in groundwater remediation. PlumeStop is composed of very fine particles of activated carbon (1-2µm) suspended in water through the use of unique organic polymer dispersion chemistry. Once in the subsurface, the material behaves as a colloidal biomatrix binding to the aquifer matrix, rapidly removing contaminants from groundwater, and expediting permanent contaminant biodegradation.
This unique remediation technology accomplishes treatment with the use of highly dispersible, fast-acting, sorption-based technology which captures and concentrates dissolved-phase contaminants within its matrix-like structure. Once contaminants are sorbed onto the regenerative matrix, biodegradation processes achieve complete remediation at an accelerated rate.
PlumeStop is a liquid activated carbon™ material which consists of a very fine suspension of charged particles which resists clumping and has a water-like viscosity. As a result, PlumeStop is easily applied into the subsurface through gravity-feed or low-pressure injection.
|To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletin 1.1 Distribution through a Permeable Medium|
Upon reagent injection, target contaminants partition out of the aqueous phase and sorb onto the liquid activated carbon™ matrix, thereby removing mobile contaminants from the immediate risk pathway. Concentration of the contaminants in this manner, in a matrix conducive to degrader colonization and activity, results in a direct increase in the overall instantaneous rate of contaminant destruction.
|To get more details on this topic read the technical bulletins 2.1 Sorption of Contaminants from Solution – Terms & Principles and 2.2 Sorption of Contaminants from Solution – Column Study|
Once in place and with contaminants partitioned onto its surface, PlumeStop is colonized by contaminant-degrading bacteria. The net result is a substantial increase in the rate and extent of contaminant destruction.
|To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletin 3.1 Post‐Sorption Contaminant Biodegradation|
Enhanced biodegradation of contaminants within the biomatrix regenerates or frees up sorption sites allowing contaminants to further partition out of the groundwater. This allows a single application of PlumeStop to remain functional for an extended/ indefinite period of time.
|To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletin 4.1 Regeneration of Sorptive Capacity|
PlumeStop technology can be applied to inhibit spreading of contaminant plumes, to protect sensitive receptors, or to prevent contaminant migration across property boundaries. It is also effective tool for control and treatment of groundwater contamination associated with low-permeability porous formations and matrix back-diffusion, promoting diffusion out of the immobile porosity while preventing groundwater impact, and for treating sites with very low contaminant concentrations. Once in place PlumeStop is expected to last for decades with minimal impact on aquifer oxidation-reduction potential, permeability and geochemistry.
PlumeStop is effective on most organic groundwater contaminants including hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, and a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs).
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