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Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a pesticide and disinfectant that is used industrially as a wood preservative.¹ PCP is an environmental and health concern due to its bioaccumulation and potential carcinogenic properties.² It is desirable to treat PCP in soil and groundwater using cost-effective in situ technologies such as bioremediation, oxidation, or reduction. With each of these …

February 12, 2015

This will depend on the project, and the contaminant flux.  The need for re-application of electron donors / acceptors such as HRC and ORC differs sharply from bio applications where PlumeStop is not employed.  In the majority of settings, it is good practice to co-apply the PlumeStop with compatible electron donors / acceptors to ensure …

October 23, 2014

This is not expected to be a problem with PlumeStop.  The clogging of formations with biofilms (not strictly waste products – microbial waste products are in the dissolved-phase) is more commonly associated with long-term / on-going substrate delivery through fixed points such as in anaerobic VOC remedial biostimulation.  In such cases, the problem is principally …


PlumeStop has little or no impact on groundwater velocity.  The viscosity upon injection is very close to that of groundwater – any difference is negligible.  Post application, the PlumeStop material coats the formation as a layer of micron-scale particles, and the impact on permeability of this in granular formation is negligible.  Tests to date have detected …


The nature of PlumeStop is such that the impact on permeability in granular formation is negligible.  Tests to date have detected no changes.  Depending on the formation, we would nevertheless anticipate an eventual limit to this in certain cases, but the first of these would likely be fractured settings for example, rather than alluvium.


Literally, PlumeStop will not penetrate ‘clay’ any more than injected water would during the period of injection.  Practically, the question would first need to determine the particular definition of clay; for example whether the use would be in a pure, competent clay or simply a clay-rich formation.  PlumeStop will distribute through the mobile porosity of …


There is no practical way of engineering a selective sorption – other species will be sorbed too as they would in a GAC unit for example.  The potential loading of these is taken into consideration at the design phase, and the PlumeStop application rate is then adjusted accordingly.


Yes.  PlumeStop is a non-toxic substance.


Yes PlumeStop is effective under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions– the principles are the same.


Filter socks are designed for placement into existing wells and to deliver very localized controlled-release of oxygen to stimulate aerobic biodegradation. Upon exhaustion of their oxygen supply (anywhere from 9-12 months) the socks can be removed and/or replaced. ORC Filter Socks may be appropriate on some sites however in many cases the same project can …