When having to deal with soil or groundwater contamination, there is no shortage of remedial options. One of the first decisions is whether or not to go with an ex situ or in situ approach. Ex situ techniques include excavation, dual and multi-phase extraction, and thermal desorption. In situ techniques include chemical oxidation, bioremediation, and adsorption. While ex situ approaches can be considered as part of any remediation plan, there are a variety of reasons why an in situ strategy can be a more cost effective option.