In the north-east of Central Stockholm, a historical industrial site was earmarked for redevelopment. Part of the site comprised a former gasworks, where historical operations have caused a complex mix of contaminants to impact the surrounding soil, groundwater and shoreline sediments.
The large site is due to be redeveloped in a series of parcels including a road, industrial park, residential homes and schools. Remediation is required to ensure the human health risk is removed as part of the restoration of the site. The impacted groundwater also represents an environmental risk and requires treatment. Risk assessments were used to determine that remediation was required to a depth of 20m BGL. The geology of the site is heterogeneous, comprising a shallow made ground, a clay layer and underlying coarse sands.
The sands are highly impacted with a range of gas works contamination included creosote NAPLs and high levels of benzene. The saturated clays are also impacted with dissolved phase contamination. Due to contaminants, concentrations and superficial geologies, a range of remedial methods would be required to ensure the most appropriate was used in each scenario. Therefore, RGS Nordic engaged REGENESIS to design a series of pilot tests utilising several in-situ methods. The results from these trials would then be used to shape the full-scale remediation strategy for the entire gasworks site area.
Combined In-Situ Remediation Approach and Planning
REGENESIS proposed a pilot-scale combined remediation approach comprising:
- Enhanced desorption using PetroCleanze to target high concentrations of soil-bound contaminants of concern (COC’s) in the sands,
- In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) using both RegenOx and PersulfOx to target medium to high dissolved phase and soil-bound PAHs in the sandy soil, and
- Enhanced aerobic degradation using ORC-Advanced to target the low dissolved phase benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the clay.
Groundwater samples were collected 3-4 months after the application of REGENESIS remediation products, see graphs 1 to 3. The results are displayed below
Enhanced Desorption using PetroCleanze
>95% reduction in dissolved phase benzene was achieved with the addition of PetroCleanze. The treatment for PAHs was found to be less effective, primarily due to the low baseline PAH concentrations which were below the optimum treatment concentration range for PetroCleanze.
Graph 1– Effect of PetroCleanze application on dissolved Benzene concentrations
ISCO using RegenOx and PersulfOx
>90% reduction in dissolved phase benzene and PAHs was observed using PersulfOx. In the RegenOx trial, dissolved benzene concentrations were found to decrease by 80%, while PAH levels increased slightly, potentially due to large volumes of desorbed COCs being released into groundwater post-treatment.
Enhanced Aerobic Biodegradation using ORC-Advanced
A sustained reduction in Naphthalene and benzene (despite suspected influx into the test area) was achieved using ORC-Advanced in the saturated clay.
Graph 2– Effect of PersulfOx application on PAH concentrations
- A wide range of contaminant concentrations were treated effectively using a combined in-situ remediation approach.
- Substantial reductions in COC concentrations were achieved despite the challenging geological setting.
- The results from the pilot tests show that all areas of the gasworks site can be successfully remediated in-situ using REGENESIS remediation products, providing significant cost savings when compared with conventional techniques
Graph 3– Effect of ORC-A application on PAH concentrations
Combined Remedy Effectively Treats 1,2-DCA and TCE at Tinker Air Force Base
This case study reviews the remediation of dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) and Trichloroethylene (TCE) using colloidal zero valent iron (ZVI) at Tinker Air Force Base, a major United States Air Force base located in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The remediation included an application of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), an aqueous suspension of colloidal zero valent iron (MicroZVI Precursor), with small amounts of fertilizer and B12. Typically, zero valent iron cannot be applied through well systems. However, due to the small particle size of the zero valent iron, this application was successfully applied through the existing wells. At 3 years post-injection, the contaminant levels remain near zero with the presence of ethene indicating continuous biodegradation.
This case study features the following:
- Successful application of colloidal zero valent iron through well system
- At 3 years post-injection, the presence of ethene signals active biodegradation
- Aqueous suspension of colloidal zero valent iron effectively reduced contaminant levels
This case study reviews a contaminated rail site in Canada that had released chlorinated solvents in groundwater. WSP conducted a pilot test at the site to assess the applicability of a brand-new technology that optimizes delivery of amendments using hydrocolloids. The pilot test would determine the applicability of a passive treatment barrier using PlumeStop and AquaZVI. A combined remedy approach was chosen because it optimizes the use of colloidal activated carbon and zero valent iron, allowing for the highest treatment efficiency at the lowest possible cost. After conducting the pilot test, data for samples collected within the treatment barrier indicated significant contaminant concentration decreases in groundwater and saturated soil.
This case study features the following:
- First application of PlumeStop® and AquaZVI™ globally
- Despite wintery weather conditions at the Rail Site in Northern Quebec, the amendment delivery and distribution was successful
- Over 95% decrease in dissolved and saturated soil VOC concentrations
- Thorough data analysis including ISMs and CSIA confirmed definite contaminant degradation
This case study reviews a pilot test to remove PFAS risk via an in situ colloidal activated carbon barrier at Camp Grayling in Crawford County, Michigan, a large year-round military training center operated by the Michigan Army National Guard (MIARNG). Colloidal activated carbon was selected because of the expected rapid reductions of PFAS by removal from the dissolved mobile phase, as well as its expected lower total project costs when compared to operating a mechanical system over a similar time. The MIARNG decided to conduct a PlumeStop pilot test to determine if this treatment would meet their site goals prior to a possible full-scale application. The goals for this pilot project were to utilize an approach that could both protect the Grayling community from exposure and cost-effectively expand to a full-scale application.
This case study features the following:
- New, innovative approach using an in situ colloidal activated carbon barrier to eliminate PFAS exposure pathway and protect the community
- Collaborative effort amongst various State of Michigan and military departments
- Economical and effective pilot study design
This case study reviews remedial programs undertaken at the Solvents Recovery Service of New England (SRSNE), where soil and groundwater were contaminated with VOCs and PFAS contaminants. The site was placed on the National Priorities List in 1983 and by 1991, all activities stopped as the site ceased operations. Since shutting down, the site has benefited from significant remediation efforts. In 2018, an innovative remedial approach incorporated natural attenuation with the use of PlumeStop® to work with an existing sheet pile structure to limit the mobility of the plume and effectively treat contaminant concentrations. PlumeStop quickly reduced PFOS/PFOA levels and in combination with AquaZVI® eliminated VOC contaminant concentrations. It is estimated that the PRP group involved will save $400,000 annually with the shut down of the pump and treat system on site.
This case study features the following:
- Estimated savings of $400,000 annually as a result of halting pump and treat operations
- PlumeStop quickly reduced PFOS/PFOA levels and in combination with AquaZVI eliminated VOC contaminant concentrations
- Extension of the popular Rails to Trails route now runs through the property, as a result of successful remediation efforts
- Successful rapid reduction of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminant concentrations in soil and groundwater completed within approximately 24 hours.
- In situ injection application of PlumeStop® Liquid Activated Carbon and ORC Advanced technologies assist REGENESIS strategic partner in bringing closure to facility identified as Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) site
- Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations (PHCs) in groundwater and soil reduced below Washington Department of Ecology’s (Ecology) Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA)
An active gasoline station in Bothell, Washington was listed as a hazardous Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) site by the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) after two subsurface investigations detected petroleum hydrocarbon-impacted soil and groundwater. Entering into the state’s Voluntary Cleanup Program (VCP) in 2001, the site continuously failed to meet regulatory requirements defined in the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA), despite years of cleanup efforts using a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system and an air sparge (AS) system to remove contaminant concentrations from beneath the site. Charged with remediation, Antea Group partnered with REGENESIS to implement a solution, which included in situ injection applications using PlumeStop and ORC Advanced technologies.
PlumeStop – an innovative groundwater remediation technology designed to address the challenges of excessive time and end-point uncertainty in groundwater remediation. PlumeStop is composed of very fine particles of activated carbon (1-2µm) suspended in water through the use of unique organic polymer dispersion chemistry. Once in the subsurface, the material behaves as a colloidal biomatrix binding to the aquifer matrix, rapidly removing contaminants from groundwater, and expediting permanent contaminant biodegradation.
ORC Advanced (ORC-A) – an engineered, oxygen-release compound designed specifically for enhanced, in situ aerobic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater and saturated soils that, upon contact with groundwater, produces a controlled-release of molecular oxygen (17% by weight) for periods of up to 12 months in a single application, accelerating aerobic biodegradation processes up to 100 times faster than natural degradation rates.
Despite the installation of three groundwater monitoring wells (MW-1 through MW-3) in 2002 and five additional monitoring wells (MW-4 through MW-8) in 2003, concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons in TPH-g and BTEX in the western portion of the site exceeded the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Method A cleanup levels. In 2004, a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system and an air-sparge (AS) system were installed and by 2005 an estimated 2,076 pounds of total volatile hydrocarbons (TVH) were extracted, with concentrations falling below MTCA Method A cleanup levels for two consecutive quarters. Laboratory analysis of groundwater samples collected during the following two quarters, however, indicated that hydrocarbon compounds in groundwater had increased in several monitoring wells.
The AS system was restarted in October, 2005 and operated on an approximate 2-week-on and 2-week-off cycle through February, 2009, when it was shut down based on non-detectable hydrocarbon concentrations in all but one groundwater monitoring well, MW-3. As a remediation strategy to address TPH-g and benzene impacts that remained in well MW-3, sulfate injection was proposed. However, due to high sulfate concentrations observed in the down-gradient monitoring well, MW-9, the sulfate injections were suspended in November of 2012 and evaluations of other chemical injection methods were proposed.
REGENESIS Remediation Services (RRS) recommended PlumeStop injection and completed two soil borings for design verification testing in November, 2015. Soils on-site were primarily sand and gravel, with two, 4-6” clayey silt layers—one at approximately five feet and the other at 10.5 feet below ground surface (bgs). Based on field screening with photoionization (PID), contamination appeared to be concentrated at the 8-9 feet depth interval, a point at which soil increasingly hardens. With results of a laboratory analysis, RRS modified the design, adjusting the vertical treatment interval from 5-12 feet below ground surface to 7-11 feet, with the concentrations and quantities of PlumeStop and ORC-A remaining unchanged.
REGENESIS Remediation Services (RRS) injected approximately 200 gallons of PlumeStop 6,000 ppm solution into on-site wells IW-1 and SVE-1 December, 2015. Using strategically placed point locations to rapidly reduce contaminant concentrations, Direct Push Technology (DPT) was employed to advance injection points throughout the treatment zone at each respective injection point location. The following day, the solution was increased to 12,000 ppm, for a total of 835 gallons of PlumeStop solution (as applied with water) injected within the targeted treatment interval to deliver the full volume of remediation chemistry and complete the application on schedule.
A total of nine (9) PlumeStop DPT injection points were cleared to 5 feet below ground surface pre-injection, and during the course of the injection seven (7) point locations were advanced to a depth of 11 feet below ground surface and retracted to a depth of 7 feet below ground surface using 1.50 inch outer diameter (O.D) Geoprobe® injection rods with retractable screen tooling.
Additionally, 120 pounds of ORC-A were applied at approximately 30% solution (w/w) in cleared boreholes via a backfilling method, which involved drilling to the target depth, retracting the rods and pouring the ORC-A slurry down open boreholes to approximately 5 feet below ground surface in order to properly abandon points.
During the course of the injection and at the end of the application, increases in groundwater levels were observed in monitoring wells MW-3 and MW-9 in the treatment area. Additionally, increases in ORP (oxidation reduction potential) were observed in MW-2, MW-3, MW-6, MW-7, MW-8, and MW-9. Increases in dissolved oxygen were also noted post-injection in MW-2, MW-3, MW-6, MW-7, MW-8, and MW-9.
The successful and rapid reduction of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminant concentrations in soil and groundwater was achieved within approximately 24 hours, despite difficulty injecting the material via direct-push injection points. With field modifications, RRS was able to not only mitigate surfacing issues by switching to injection via injection well application but also observe the desired distribution of the remediation chemistry in the subsurface.
In the same way the State of Washington Department of Ecology continues to take steps and implement tools that will streamline the cleanup process even further, REGENESIS recognizes the critical need for cost-effective, sustainable and environmentally sound remediation solutions. Whether pioneering new in situ technologies in the lab or rolling up its sleeves in the field to ensure a successful project outcome, REGENESIS remains committed to advancing the remediation industry for the benefit of its partners as well as for the future of the world at large.
How PlumeStop® Brings Sites to Permanent Closure
PlumeStop rapidly removes contaminants from groundwater and stimulates their permanent degradation. This exciting, turn-key solution offers several key benefits for addressing brownfield site treatment, including:
- Rapid reduction of dissolved-phase plumes
- Distribution of widely under low injection pressures
- Achievement of stringent groundwater clean-up standards
- Providing a long-term means of addressing matrix back–diffusion
- Elimination of excessive time and end-point uncertainty associated with groundwater remediation
PlumeStop is composed of very fine particles of activated carbon (1-2µm), suspended in water through the use of unique organic polymer dispersion chemistry. Once in the subsurface, the material behaves as a colloidal biomatrix, binding to the aquifer matrix, rapidly removing contaminants from groundwater, and expediting permanent contaminant biodegradation. This unique remediation technology accomplishes treatment with the use of highly dispersible, fast-acting, sorption-based technology which captures and concentrates dissolved-phase contaminants within its matrix-like structure. When contaminants are sorbed onto the regenerative matrix, biodegradation processes achieve complete remediation at an accelerated rate, leading to successful site treatment.
- Combined introduction of HRC® hydrogen release compounds and BDI Plus® bioaugmentation cultures resulted in reduction in chlorinated solvent concentrations, meeting site goals
- Successful remediation permitted redevelopment of the site into an elementary school
A former taxi maintenence facility located in Los Angeles, California was used as a garage and maintenance facility containing seven underground storage tanks (USTs), four hydraulic hoists, an elevator, a clarifier, and a spray paint booth. Environmental assessment related to the planned redevelopment of the garage and nearby commercial properties and residences revealed contamination of the soil and groundwater beneath the site with trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) due to release from the former USTs and paint shop areas.
Under the jurisdiction of the California Department of Toxic Substance Control, an enhanced anaerobic biodegradation approach in conjunction with bioaugmentation was developed to remediate the chlorinated solvent contamination. This approach combined the introduction of the dechlorinating microcosm BDI Plus® with the application of supporting hydrogen release compounds 3-D Microemulsion® and HRC Primer®. Following treatment of the site, reduction in TCE and 1,2-DCE concentrations have been observed after four quarters of postremediation monitoring. Microbial data supports the benefits of the bioaugmentation effort by showing a steep increase in dehalococcoides populations, which increased by nearly four orders of magnitude. In addition, all geochemical parameters are in range for a reductive state.
3-D Microemulsion is an engineered electron donor material that offers a novel three-stage electron donor release profile, pH neutral chemistry, and is delivered on-site as a factory-emulsified product.
HRC Primer is derivative of the standard Hydrogen Release Compound product and is designed to provide a controlled but fast release of hydrogen to assist in initiating anaerobic biodegradation.
Bio-Dechlor INOCULUM Plus (BDI Plus) is an enriched natural microbial consortium containing species of Dehalococcoides sp. (DHC). This microbial consortium has since been enriched to increase its ability to rapidly dechlorinate contaminants during in situ bioremediation processes.
Reduction of TCE and 1,2-DCE concentrations by enhanced anaerobic biodegradation and bioaugmentation facilitated the redevelopment of a former taxi garage and maintenance facility. Following a reduction in contaminant concentrations, the site was redeveloped to an elementary school.
Fig. 1 – Remedial works at residential construction site
- During the construction of multiple residential dwelling it became apparent that a historical gas works had previously occupied the site.
- A targeted site investigation needed to be completed quickly to identify the areas requiring remedial action, enabling construction to continue in plots outside of the plume.
- A combined remedial strategy was required to address soil, LNAPL, DNAPL and dissolved phase contamination.
- The implementation of the treatment had to be completed around partially completed housing and live underground services.
- The remedial works had to be completed quickly in a manner as to not impact the build program.
- The strategy needed to provide appropriate protection to both human health and controlled waters.
- The need to respond and act quickly required excellent communication and good working relationships to be established between the consultant, stakeholders, regulators and multiple specialist remediation contractors and suppliers.
A wide range of remediation technologies were deployed sequentially and in parallel to provide the most rapid and cost effective clean up:
- Ex situ bio-piling of hydrocarbon impacted soils
- LNAPL skimming
- Pump and treat (P&T) of dissolved phase contamination
- DNAPL pumping and settlement/collection
- Enhanced abstraction of contaminant mass using PetroCleanze
- In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using RegenOx, which is compatible with footings and services already in place
- Accelerated aerobic natural attenuation using ORC Advanced slurry
- Accelerated aerobic natural attenuation using a pelletised oxygen-release compound (ORC Advanced) placed in the backfill
- PlumeStop Liquid Activated Carbon injection to install a subsurface activated carbon filter to adsorb and biologically degrade dissolved phase contamination
- Gas vapour membrane installation
Ex situ treatment
The impacted materials within the unsaturated zones within Plume A and B were excavated and placed in a biopile for onsite treatment (Figure 1). Nutrients were added and the biopile was turned until remedial targets were achieved. The soils were then backfilled under the CL:AIRE Code of Practice. Prior to backfill with the remediated soils, ORC Advanced Pellets were added to the base of the excavation. This provided a source of dissolved oxygen for up to a year, stimulating the growth of an effective aerobic biomass and accelerating the degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbon contamination.
Fig. 2 – Details of Ex-Situ Treatment
In Situ Treatment
The southern part of Plume A was made inaccessible by footings and services; here in-situ treatment was completed accommodate these obstructions without compromising treatment efficacy. Within Plume B, where high levels of contamination had been encountered (Figure 2), several in situ remedial actions were taken as appropriate to concentration, location and sequence in the strategy:
- REGENESIS injected PlumeStop, a micron-scale colloidal Liquid Activated Carbon substrate along the western margin of the site via direct push to protect the offsite surface water. PlumeStop creates a subsurface activated carbon filter which adsorbs the contaminant influx, which is then degraded by the microbial growth on the carbon biomatrix. Biological degradation was also accelerated through co-application of ORC Advanced and the presence of the pelletised ORC placed in the base of the excavation upgradient, providing a controlled release of oxygen.
- Where LNAPL and high dissolved phase concentrations were observed, a network of injection boreholes were installed by Rake Remediation/REGENESIS. Many of the wells were installed by removing suspended floors and lifting in a mini-rig to complete the drilling beneath partially constructed dwellings. Through these wells, multiple applications of RegenOx were completed. This in situ chemical oxidant was chosen as it was safe to handle on this busy site and would not corrode services installed at the site, nor would it be detrimental to the concrete footings.
Fig. 3 – Details of In-Situ Treatment
- Following the ISCO, ORC Advanced slurry was injected to enhance the natural attenuation (ENA) of the residual dissolved phase contamination to low levels.
- In Plume B, high levels of contamination in the form of both L- and DNAPL were encountered. This was removed using a P&T system augmented with PetroCleanze, an inorganic surfactant that uses a high pH, carbonates, silicates and partial oxidation to remove contaminants from soils. The PetroCleanze was injected to produce a temporary desorption event, which once observed, allowed the P&T system to be switched back for a short period to remove the contamination. This process was repeated three times to maximise the efficacy of the P&T and shorten the treatment programme.
- Once the NAPL was removed, multiple rounds of RegenOx were completed, followed by ORC Advanced via injection through wells.
- Long term groundwater monitoring programme was put in place to monitor the effectiveness of the clean-up.
The following graphs (Figures 7 and 8) show the variations in concentrations for selected priority contaminants of concern over the monitoring period for Plume A and B. These show a marked reduction in the hydrocarbon dissolved phase concentrations over time, with compliance achieved with the remedial criteria.
Fig. 7 – Plume A: Benzene concentrations over time. (red line = DQRA)
Fig. 8 – Plume B: Aromatic C8-C10 concentrations over time (red line = DQRA)
Complimentary remedial technologies were combined successfully to achieve:
- Contaminant mass reduction to below remedial targets in the soil and groundwater within 6 months.
- Protection of onsite and offsite receptors.
- Written confirmation by the Environment Agency that they ‘agree with (the reports’) conclusions’ and that ‘development may proceed’.
- Remediation completed on a tight budget – as remediation had not been foreseen by the developer.
- Ex-Situ remediation of soils and their reuse on site under the CL:AIRE CoP avoided offsite disposal of ~800m3 to landfill.
- In situ enhancement of the P&T system, minimising the time, cost and volume of abstraction required.
- By combining the technologies intelligently, both simultaneously and sequentially, the programme length was minimised – allowing construction to continue within only 6 months.
With RGS Nordic
An area of impacted soils was discovered at an oil-distribution depot at a Swedish harbour. This was thought to have occurred due to historic spillages and leaks from industrial land use on the site. Remediation of the soils was required to MKM levels (Swedens generic industrial land use clean-up criteria).Download pdf
As the contaminated soil was quite shallow (1.0-2.5m BGL) it was determined that excavation would be easily achieved. Treatment of the soils through biopiling or windrows was not deemed appropriate due to limited space. Therefore ex situ mixing of the soils with a chemical oxidant, PersulfOx, was chosen in order to provide rapid reduction of the contaminant mass. This would be followed by a short period of enhanced biological degradation in the treated soils, stimulated by the increased redox in the soil moisture following the chemical oxidation process. Partial chemical oxidation of the hydrocarbons into more bioavailable and biodegradable compounds would also accelerate biodegradation of a proportion of the residual contaminant mass.
PersulfOx was added into the soils at a dosage rate of 17kg per 1m3 of soils. This was then mixed thoroughly using an Allu hydraulic bucket, during which the soils were wetted. This would increase the soil moisture in order to facilitate the chemical reaction. Care was taken to avoid adding too much water and risk damaging the geotechnical properties of the soils.
The sides and base of the excavations were validated to delineate the vertical and lateral extent of the impacted zone and ensure that all of the contaminated soil had been removed. Following application of the PersulfOx, the treated soils were then placed back into the excavations and validated. Following successful validation, the soils were compacted to the required capacity in order to allow site traffic to pass over the treated areas.
Sampling of the soils three months after treatment, showed that the target concentrations had been reduced to below the target guideline values, see Figure 1 and 2.
Fig. 1: Combined results from both areas, Aliphatic C5-C16
- The impacted soils were successfully remediated in a short period of time.
- Due to its built-in catalyst, the use of PersulfOx avoided the need for dangerous activators such as hydrogen peroxide or caustic soda, making the remediation process much safer.
- The treatment area was minimised, making the remediation of the soils practical and avoiding greater disruption to the site operator.
Fig. 2: Combined results from both areas, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
On a 6 hectare site in northern Italy, an extensive enhanced reductive dechlorination process had been previously been carried out by REGENESIS using a combination of proprietary electron donors (3-D Microemulsion and HRCs). This resulted in successfully reducing TCE contamination and its daughter products from high levels (suggesting the presence of some DNAPL) to low dissolved phase concentrations. The concentrations were suitably low to allow regulatory closure of the internal part of the site. This was achieved within 2 years from a single injection. Immediately beyond the downgradient site boundary, a river presents a sensitive receptor. This, plus legislative rules, determine that the site boundary targets are very stringent (<1 μg/L). Although the previous electron-donor application has reduced the contaminant influx dramatically, at such low concentrations, biodegradation alone may not reach these low targets.
Therefore, a second phase treatment has been implemented in order to enhance the biodegradation process further using PlumeStop, a Liquid Activated Carbon. This application will adsorb the contamination and provide a biomatrix on which the dehalogenating bacteria will come into contact with the chlorinated solvents. This combination of sorption and biodegradation will provide an enhanced reduction in contaminant concentrations, which will then be sustained and further contaminant influx is adsorbed and degraded.Download the pdf
PlumeStop was applied in a double pilot test performed in two areas of the site, where different contaminant concentrations were observed. This was useful for demonstrating technology’s efficacy and to design and accurate dose for the full scale treatment. A larger PlumeStop barrier application is now being implemented along the site boundary. This will create a subsurface activated carbon filter along the length of the downgradient boundary. This consists of approx. 150 direct push injection points, performed using two Geoprobe rigs, in parallel. The dosage has been tailored for each sub-area depending on the contamination concentration and heterogeneity of the alluvial subsurface.
- Unique in situ process allows for fast depletion of residual organic contaminants in order to reach very stringent values using only a single application.
- Bioregeneration of the injected carbon filter is achieved through biodegradation of the sorbed chlorinated compounds: this provides long term treatment (years – decades) from a single application.
- The system will replace a costly Pump & Treat barrier that has worked to hydraulically confine the site for 10 years. This will allow the owner to finally cease all site remediation activities and allow regulatory site closure.