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Technology-Based Solutions for the Environment


PlumeStop® Liquid Activated Carbon

A Fast-Acting Groundwater Remediation Reagent which Captures and Biodegrades a Range of Contaminants


  • Rapidly reduces dissolved-phase plumes in days/weeks
  • Distributes widely under low injection pressures
  • Colloidal biomatrix completely biodegrades contaminants in-place
  • Achieves stringent groundwater clean-up standards
  • Stops contaminant migration and protects sensitive receptors
  • Provides a long-term means of addressing matrix back–diffusion
  • Eliminates excessive time and end-point uncertainty associated with groundwater remediation

How it Works

PlumeStop® Liquid Activated Carbon is an innovative groundwater remediation technology designed to address the challenges of excessive time and end-point uncertainty in groundwater remediation. PlumeStop is composed of very fine particles of activated carbon (1-2µm) suspended in water through the use of unique organic polymer dispersion chemistry. Once in the subsurface, the material behaves as a colloidal biomatrix binding to the aquifer matrix, rapidly removing contaminants from groundwater, and expediting permanent contaminant biodegradation.

This unique remediation technology accomplishes treatment with the use of highly dispersible, fast-acting, sorption-based technology which captures and concentrates dissolved-phase contaminants within its matrix-like structure. Once contaminants are sorbed onto the regenerative matrix, biodegradation processes achieve complete remediation at an accelerated rate.

The Four PlumeStop Treatment Mechanisms:

Dispersion, Sorption, Biodegradation and Regeneration

1.) Dispersion within the Subsurface

PlumeStop is a liquid activated carbon™ material which consists of a very fine suspension of charged particles which resists clumping and has a water-like viscosity. As a result, PlumeStop is easily applied into the subsurface through gravity-feed or low-pressure injection.

To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletin 1.1 Distribution through a Permeable Medium


2.) Rapid Sorption of Dissolved-Phase Contaminants

Upon reagent injection, target contaminants partition out of the aqueous phase and sorb onto the liquid activated carbon™ matrix, thereby removing mobile contaminants from the immediate risk pathway. Concentration of the contaminants in this manner, in a matrix conducive to degrader colonization and activity, results in a direct increase in the overall instantaneous rate of contaminant destruction.

To get more details on this topic read the technical bulletins 2.1 Sorption of Contaminants from Solution – Terms & Principles and 2.2 Sorption of Contaminants from Solution – Column Study


3.) Biodegradation of Contaminants within the Matrix

Once in place and with contaminants partitioned onto its surface, PlumeStop is colonized by contaminant-degrading bacteria. The net result is a substantial increase in the rate and extent of contaminant destruction.

To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletin 3.1 Post‐Sorption Contaminant Biodegradation


4.) Regeneration of Sorption Sites for Long-Term Treatment

Enhanced biodegradation of contaminants within the biomatrix regenerates or frees up sorption sites allowing contaminants to further partition out of the groundwater. This allows a single application of PlumeStop to remain functional for an extended/ indefinite period of time.

To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletin 4.1 Regeneration of Sorptive Capacity

Treat Back-Diffusing, Low-Concentration Plumes

PlumeStop technology can be applied to inhibit spreading of contaminant plumes, to protect sensitive receptors, or to prevent contaminant migration across property boundaries. It is also effective tool for control and treatment of groundwater contamination associated with low-permeability porous formations and matrix back-diffusion, promoting diffusion out of the immobile porosity while preventing groundwater impact, and for treating sites with very low contaminant concentrations. Once in place PlumeStop is expected to last for decades with minimal impact on aquifer oxidation-reduction potential, permeability and geochemistry.

Target Contaminants

PlumeStop is effective on most organic groundwater contaminants including hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, and a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs).

Typical Groundwater Applications

  • Liquid-based direct-push injection through hollow rods
  • Liquid-based direct-placement into boreholes
  • Liquid-based injections in conjunction with Oxygen Release Compound (ORC) to support enhanced aerobic biodegradation
  • Liquid-based injections in conjunction with Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC) to support enhanced anaerobic biodegradation

Next Steps

If you currently have a project and need a remediation solution now, visit our Request a Design page.
Have questions or want to explore some ideas? Contact Us to get in touch with a local representative.