PlumeStop is a unique groundwater remediation technology designed to rapidly remove and permanently degrade groundwater contaminants.
The colloidal activated carbon treatment process
PlumeStop®Liquid Activated Carbon ™ is composed of very fine particles of activated carbon (1-2µm) suspended in water using dispersion agents.
This forms a colloidal activated carbon that is injected into the subsurface under low pressure, flowing through the impacted flux zones. PlumeStop coats the aquifer in a thin layer of activated carbon, which converts the subsurface into a purifying filter.
Contamination is rapidly removed from the groundwater through sorption onto the PlumeStop particles. Once on the activated carbon, biological degradation continually destroys the contamination. This regenerates sorption sites to allow sorption of further contaminant influx. This combination of sorption and biodegradation provides long-term and complete remediation, preventing plume development and achieving low remedial targets.
When used in the treatment of PFAS, PlumeStop provides enhanced attenuation of plumes via sorption. Learn more here: PFAS plume treatment
- Targets dissolved-phase plumes
- Achieves very low remedial targets
- Provides long-term treatment
- Addresses further influx and back diffusion
- Low pressure injection
- Accurate emplacement
- Avoid fracturing
- Direct push or injection wells
- Co-applied with ORC Advanced to support biological degradation
- Grid or barrier approach
- Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH, BTEX, etc.)
- CVOCs, incl. ethenes & ethanes
- Dry Cleaning
- Industrial sites / Manufacturing
The Four PlumeStop Treatment Mechanisms
The following Technical Bulletins provide greater detail on the mechanism
that PlumeStop combines to provide its innovative treatment:
- PlumeStop coats the aquifer matrix in a thin layer of activated carbon. The small particle size provides a large surface area and short distance to internal sorption sites, providing rapid sorption of organic contaminants.
- To get more details on this topic read the technical bulletins 2.1 Sorption of Contaminants from Solution – Terms & Principles and 2.2 Sorption of Contaminants from Solution – Column Study
- PlumeStop is a low-viscosity colloidal suspension of 1-2µm activated carbon particles suspended in water. The dispersion chemistry in PlumeStop prevents clumping of the particles to allow it to pass easily through pore-throats in the subsurface. Low-pressure injection creates wide-area distribution of the product, coating the flux zone around each injection location.
- To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletin 1.1 Distribution through a Permeable Medium
- Once in place and with contaminants partitioned onto its surface, PlumeStop is colonized by contaminant-degrading bacteria. This can be stimulated further through co-application with electron donors or acceptors and also bio-augmentation.
- To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletin 3.1 Post Sorption Contaminant Biodegradation
Regeneration of Sorption Sites
- Enhanced biodegradation of contaminants within the biomatrix regenerates or frees up sorption sites allowing contaminant influx from upgradient or back diffusion to partition out of the groundwater. This allows a single application of PlumeStop to remain functional for an extended/ indefinite period of time.
- To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletins 4.1 Regeneration of Sorptive Capacity and 6.1 Treatment Solutions for Back Diffusion
FAQs about PlumeStop® Liquid Activated Carbon™
PlumeStop® Liquid Activated Carbon™ is a fast-acting groundwater remediation reagent which captures and biodegrades a range of contaminants. PlumeStop accomplishes treatment with the use of a highly dispersible, fast-acting, sorption-based technology which captures dissolved-phase contaminants within its matrix-like structure. Once contaminants are absorbed onto the regenerative matrix, biodegradation processes achieve complete remediation at an accelerated rate.
PlumeStop® is composed of very fine particles of activated carbon (>1-2µm) suspended in a proprietary colloidal fluid through the use of unique organic polymer dispersion chemistry. Once in the subsurface, the material behaves as a colloidal biomatrix binding to the aquifer matrix, removing contaminants from groundwater, and expediting permanent contaminant biodegradation. PlumeStop works in 4 phases: the first is dispersion within the subsurface, the second is rapid sorption of dissolved-phase contaminants, then biodegradation of contaminants within the matrix, and the final phase is regeneration of absorption sites for long-term treatment.
PlumeStop® is right for your project if you are trying to treat organic groundwater contaminants including hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). PlumeStop is also effective in treating a range of PFAS contaminants (PFOA/PFOS). PlumeStop can be applied to inhibit the spreading of contaminant plumes, to protect sensitive receptors, or to prevent contaminant migration across property boundaries.