Protect downgradient receptors by installing a subsurface activated carbon filter

The injectable colloidal activated carbon treatment process

PlumeStop®Liquid Activated Carbon is composed of very fine particles of activated carbon (1-2µm) suspended in water using dispersion agents.

PlumeStop is injected under low pressure, widely distributing within contaminated flux zones. This coats the aquifer in a thin layer of activated carbon, converting the subsurface into a purifying filter.

Contamination is adsorbed by the PlumeStop particles, rapidly removing it from the groundwater and preventing further exposure to downgradient receptors.

When treating chlorinated compounds, remediation is combined with biological and chemical degradation of the sorbed contaminants.

PlumeStop can also eliminate the risk posed by PFAS plumes. Find out more here: PFAS plume treatment


  • Targets dissolved-phase plumes
  • Achieves very low remedial targets
  • Provides long-term treatment
  • Addresses further influx and back diffusion

Target Contaminants

  • CVOCs, incl. ethenes & ethanes
  • Pesticides
  • PFAS


  • Low pressure injection means:
    • Accurate emplacement
    • Avoids fracturing
  • Direct push or injection wells
  • Grid or barrier approach
  • Can be co-applied with AquiFix to enhance anaerobic degradation of chlorinated compounds
  • Can be co-applied with S-MicroZVI® for a combined ERD-ISCR treatment approach

PlumeStop Resources

Technical Bulletins

Case Studies

Video Library

PFAS Plume Treatment


The Four PlumeStop Treatment Mechanisms

The following Technical Bulletins provide greater detail on the mechanism
that PlumeStop combines to provide its innovative treatment:


  1. PlumeStop coats the aquifer matrix in a thin layer of activated carbon. The small particle size provides a large surface area and short distance to internal sorption sites, providing rapid sorption of organic contaminants.
  2. To get more details on this topic read the technical bulletins 2.1 Sorption of Contaminants from Solution – Terms & Principles and 2.2 Sorption of Contaminants from Solution – Column Study


  1. PlumeStop is a low-viscosity colloidal suspension of 1-2µm activated carbon particles suspended in water. The dispersion chemistry in PlumeStop prevents clumping of the particles to allow it to pass easily through pore-throats in the subsurface. Low-pressure injection creates wide-area distribution of the product, coating the flux zone around each injection location.
  2. To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletin 1.1 Distribution through a Permeable Medium

Biological Degradation

  1. Once in place and with contaminants partitioned onto its surface, PlumeStop is colonized by contaminant-degrading bacteria. This can be stimulated further through co-application with electron donors or acceptors and also bio-augmentation.
  2. To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletin 3.1 Post Sorption Contaminant Biodegradation

Regeneration of Sorption Sites

  1. Enhanced biodegradation of contaminants within the biomatrix regenerates or frees up sorption sites allowing contaminant influx from upgradient or back diffusion to partition out of the groundwater. This allows a single application of PlumeStop to remain functional for an extended/ indefinite period of time.
  2. To get more details on this topic read Technical Bulletins 4.1 Regeneration of Sorptive Capacity and 6.1 Treatment Solutions for Back Diffusion

FAQs about PlumeStop® Liquid Activated Carbon™

PlumeStop® Liquid Activated Carbon™ is a fast-acting groundwater remediation reagent which captures and biodegrades a range of contaminants. PlumeStop accomplishes treatment with the use of a highly dispersible, fast-acting, sorption-based technology which captures dissolved-phase contaminants within its matrix-like structure. Once contaminants are absorbed onto the regenerative matrix, biodegradation processes achieve complete remediation at an accelerated rate.

PlumeStop® is composed of very fine particles of activated carbon (>1-2µm) suspended in a proprietary colloidal fluid through the use of unique organic polymer dispersion chemistry. Once in the subsurface, the material behaves as a colloidal biomatrix binding to the aquifer matrix, removing contaminants from groundwater, and expediting permanent contaminant biodegradation. PlumeStop works in 4 phases: the first is dispersion within the subsurface, the second is rapid sorption of dissolved-phase contaminants, then biodegradation of contaminants within the matrix, and the final phase is regeneration of absorption sites for long-term treatment.

PlumeStop® is right for your project if you are trying to treat organic groundwater contaminants including hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). PlumeStop is also effective in treating a range of PFAS contaminants (PFOA/PFOS). PlumeStop can be applied to inhibit the spreading of contaminant plumes, to protect sensitive receptors, or to prevent contaminant migration across property boundaries.

Are you planning a remediation project?
Contact Us to explore solutions and options.